Chemical Difference Between Crack [UPD] And Cocaine Pic
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Chemical Difference Between Crack [UPD] And Cocaine Pic
Crack is produced by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). The mixture is boiled until a solid substance forms. The solid is removed from the liquid, dried, and then broken into the chunks (rocks) that are sold as crack cocaine.
Individuals of all ages use crack cocaine--data reported in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicate that an estimated 6,222,000 U.S. residents aged 12 and older used crack at least once in their lifetime. The survey also revealed that hundreds of thousands of teenagers and young adults use crack cocaine--150,000 individuals aged 12 to 17 and 1,003,000 individuals aged 18 to 25 used the drug at least once.
Both coke and crack can take a similar toll on the body, although it can be more severe if cocaine is injected or crack is smoked, compared to cocaine that is snorted through the nose. There are many signals that someone may have a cocaine or crack addiction, including: weight loss, erratic sleep habits, hallucinations and loss of interest in relationships, job, school or other outside activities, among other signs. In fact, if there is any question about is cocaine or crack addictive, the answer is most certainly yes; some people may even get addicted after one use. Crack or cocaine users also run the risk of arrhythmia, seizures, stroke and even sudden cardiac death.
Although crack is cheaper to buy and produce, cocaine in its powdered form is still used more frequently. Of the 1.9 million people in the United States who used cocaine, only about a quarter of them used it in crack form, according to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Adminstration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Crack is considered a more dangerous and addictive substance in comparison to cocaine. This is partially due to the fact that it takes far less time to take full effect in the human body when it is inhaled, in addition to the higher purity levels common in crack.
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Cocaine and crack certainly differ in appearance. Cocaine is generally found in white powder form, and crack is found in a rock form that is generally white, cream, tan, or light brown. Crack and cocaine also differ in the manner in which they are used. Cocaine is typically snorted, and crack is typically smoked.
Another difference between crack and cocaine relates to the high produced. The intensity and duration of the high largely relate to how the drug is taken, per the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Generally, when cocaine is injected or smoked, the drug takes effect more quickly, resulting in a more intense but shorter high. When cocaine is snorted, it takes longer to feel its effects but the resulting high lasts longer.
According to a clinical pharmacist, cocaine and crack produce very different effects in the body, largely related to how they are usually administered. When cocaine is snorted, its effects occur in about 1-5 minutes; they peak within 20-30 minutes; and they dissipate within 1-2 hours. The effects of crack take hold in under a minute, peak in 3-5 minutes, and last 30-60 minutes. If cocaine is injected, however, the effects begin, peak, and last for about as long as crack. While injection is not the most common method of cocaine consumption, it is used by some people.
The effects of crack can be variable due to the uncertainty of the purity of the cocaine used to manufacture it. This only adds to the seriousness and unpredictability of smoking crack. The effects of crack use are similar to cocaine use although often more intense. They include:
Smoking crack causes these effects to take hold more quickly and intensely than cocaine because crack is absorbed through the membranes of the lungs, entering the bloodstream and the brain within 10-15 seconds. As such, the risk of overdosing is extremely high, leading to convulsions, coma, and death. Symptoms of crack overdose are rapid heart rate and hyperventilation.
A 1/8 ounce of cocaine (3.5 grams), or 8-ball, may cost between $120-150, while a 1/10th gram of crack, or a rock, may cost between $10-25. Cocaine is expensive to buy on the streets. Crack was developed as a cheaper alternative to cocaine, making it more easily affordable to users. As a less expensive alternative, it became more accessible to those in the lower socioeconomic demographic. These people had less disposable income available to spend on drugs, but they were seeking options to get high. This brought crack use to low-income and minority communities. By the 1980s, there was an epidemic of crack use in these communities.
As a result, there is a public perception that cocaine is associated with more affluent drug users, whereas crack use is associated with those in lower income brackets and minorities. Despite this widespread belief, information from the National Institute on Drug Abuse showed that in 1991, the majority of crack users were Caucasian.
Generally, those who want a more intense, faster, cheaper high are attracted to crack. Some people begin with cocaine use and then transition to crack use when the habit of cocaine use is too expensive to maintain.
African Americans became the criminal targets of the crack epidemic. Most defendants in crack trials were African American while those in powdered cocaine trials tended to be Caucasian or Hispanic. In 2002, African Americans represented more than 80 percent of those charged with crack offenses.
The Act also changed the crack-to-powder-cocaine ratio regarding the amount required to impose an equal sentence from 100-to-1 to 18-to-1. While the disparity in sentencing is still great at 18:1, it is significantly reduced.
However, there is a difference in the way that the drugs are taken. Powder cocaine is snorted, injected or swallowed, while crack cocaine is smoked. Thus crack cocaine tends to be cheaper, faster acting, and the high lasts for a shorter period of time, compared to inhaling powder cocaine. How quickly the effects are felt differs based on how it is taken, as do the ways in which the associated harms can be reduced.
Despite the fact that the chemical structure of powder cocaine and crack cocaine is nearly identical, the punishment for crack possession or sales is far greater than that of cocaine. Until 2010, this sentencing disparity was 100 to 1, which means that while just 5 grams of crack would carry a 5-year mandatory minimum, it would take 500 grams of cocaine to trigger the same 5-year sentence. While the law was changed in 2010, there continues to be a disparity of 18 to 1.
This sentencing disparity has had a disproportionate impact on poor people and people of color. Statistics show that Black people are more likely to be convicted of crack cocaine offenses (even though the majority of crack cocaine users are white) and white people are more likely to be convicted of powder cocaine offenses. This means that Black people continue to receive far harsher drug sentences than white people even though powder and crack cocaine are nearly identical substances.
Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant drug processed from plants that are indigenous to South America. Its chemical name benzoylmethylecgonine, Cocaine has a well-deserved reputation as a serious drug of abuse; however, cocaine is a substance that has been used for medicinal reasons for quite some time and still may be used by some physicians and dentists as a topical medication to numb nasal tissues during surgery as well as for several other very restricted uses.
Crack cocaine is essentially the same substance as powdered cocaine but in a different form. The process to make crack cocaine involves mixing the powder form of cocaine with some base, such as baking soda or another substance, boiling it in water, and then removing the baking soda, which removes the hydrochloride. This results in the active ingredient in cocaine being more amenable to being smoked.
The two substances are basically chemically identical except that crack cocaine has the hydrochloride salt removed; hydrochloride salt has no psychoactive effects. Thus, crack cocaine is a bit more concentrated.
Thus, the evidence indicates that the differences attributed to the use of crack cocaine are largely fueled by the differences in the common means of administration of the drug as opposed to any chemical differences between crack cocaine and powder cocaine. Other myths are associated with misconceptions regarding crack cocaine being different from powder cocaine. The criteria to diagnose cocaine abuse are the same whether the individual uses crack cocaine, powder cocaine, or injects cocaine.
The diagnostic category that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) uses to categorize individuals who abuse cocaine and suffer ill effects is a stimulant use disorder. In general, a substance use disorder refers to both issues with abusing a drug and developing an addiction to the drug. These issues occur on a continuum, and the term substance use disorder is now applied by APA to recognize that substance abuse and addiction are related issues that are not easily separated. Whether one uses crack cocaine or powdered cocaine, the development of a substance use disorder occurs when the individual suffers negative and distressing effects from using the drug, has issues with controlling their use of the drug, and continues using the drug in spite of these negative ramifications. There are no formal medical tests that can diagnose a substance use disorder, and the formal diagnosis can only be made by a licensed mental health clinician. 153554b96e